Biosensors Types and it's Application in Pharmaceutical industries


An analytical device used to change biological response into an electrical signal is called a biosensor. The term biosensor refers to sensor devices used for determining the concentration of substances and other biological parameters even where the biological system is not directly involved.
Biosensors use a transducer to couple a biological sensing element with a detector. The first scientifically planned and successfully commercialised biosensors were the electrochemical sensors useful for multiple analytes.

Schematic Diagram Showing Main Components of a Biosensors 

The biosensor contains a biological sensing element (e.g., tissues, microorganisms, organelles, cell receptors, enzymes, antibodies, nucleic acids, natural products, etc.), a material obtained biologically (e.g., recombinant antibodies, engineered proteins, aptamers, etc.) or agents that mimic biological system (e.g., synthetic receptors, biomimetic catalysts, combinatorial ligands, imprinted polymers, etc.) either closely associated to or integrated in a transducer.


The preferred biological material is generally a specific enzyme that is immobilised using conventional methods (e.g., physical or membrane entrapment, non- covalent or covalent binding) and brought in close contact with the transducer.
The analyte on binding to the biological material forms a bound analyte that produces a measurable electronic response. Sometimes due to the release of heat, gas (oxygen), electrons or hydrogen ions, the analyte converts into a product; and changes associated to this product is transformed by the transducer to electrical signals that are amplified and measured.


The electrical signal coming from the transducer is low and superimposed by high and noisy baseline (could be due to high frequency signal component of random nature, or electrical interference generated in transducer electronic components). A baseline signal derived from a similar transducer without any biocatalyst membrane is called a reference baseline signal.
In signal processing, this reference baseline signal is subtracted from the sample signal; the signal difference obtained is amplified and the unwanted noise signals are electronically filtered (i.e. smoothened). The biosensor response is slow and eases the electrical noise filtration. The analogue signal produced directly is the output; however, it is converted to a digital signal, passed to a microprocessor for processing and manipulating the data to desired units, and then the output is displayed or stored.


A biosensor is of the following different types based on the type of sensor devices and the biological materials:

  1. Electrochemical Biosensor : It is a simple device used to measure electronic current, ionic or conductance changes carried by bio-electrodes.
  2. Amperometric Biosensor : It determines the movement of electrons or electronic current due to a redox reaction catalysed by enzyme. Usually, a normal contact voltage moves along the electrodes to be analysed. In the enzyme-catalysed reaction, the substrate or product obtained can transfer the electrons with the surface of electrodes to be reduced; hence, an alternate current flow is measurable.
  3. Blood Glucose Biosensor : It is employed extensively for diabetic patients. It contains a watch pen-shaped disposable electrode for single use. This electrode has glucose oxide and derivatives of a mediator (Ferrocene). The electrodes are converted using hydrophilic mesh.
  4. Potentiometric Biosensor : It measures the changes in the concentration of ionic species with the help of ion-selective electrodes present in it. It generally employs pH electrodes, thus in the release of hydrogen ions a large amount of enzymatic reactions are involved.
  5. Conductometric Biosensor : Many reactions occurring in the biological system bring about a change in the ionic species. This change is helpful in measuring the electronic conductivity. Urea biosensor which utilises the immobilised areas is an example of conductometric biosensor.
  6. Thermometric Biosensor : Several biological reactions involve production of heat and form the basis of thermometric biosensors. The diagram representing a thermal biosensor consists of a heat insulated box fitted with a heat exchanger.
  7. Optical Biosensor : It works on the principle of optical measurements, like fluorescence, absorbance, etc., and is utilised in fibre optics and optoelectronic transducers. Optical biosensor can even be safely used for non-electrical remote sensing of materials. It is involved in enzymes and antibodies in the transducer elements. This biosensor generally does not require any reference sensor, and sampling sensor is used for generating comparative signals.
  8. Fibre Optic Lactate Biosensor : It measures the change in oxygen concentration at molecular level by identifying the effects of oxygen in fluorescent dye.
  9. Optical Biosensor for Blood Glucose : In diabetic patients, the blood glucose level is important to be monitored. It is based on a simple technique in which paper strips saturated with reagents, like glucose oxide, Horseradish Peroxidase and a chromogen are used. The intensity of the dye colour is measured using a portable reflectance meter. The calorimetric test strips of cellulose layered with suitable enzymes and reagents are also widely used for testing blood and urine parameters.
  10. Piezoelectric Biosensor : It is also called acoustic biosensor as its principle relies on sound vibrations. It contains piezoelectric crystals and the characteristic frequencies vibrate with the positively and negatively charged crystals. With the help of electronic devices, certain molecules on the crystal surface can be measured. The response frequencies can be changed by using these crystals with attached inhibitors. For example, the biosensor for cocaine (in the gas phase) works by attaching the cocaine antibodies on crystal surface.

Applications in Pharmaceutical Industries

Biosensors are made up of a biological element and a physiochemical detector used for detecting analytes. These devices have a wide range of applications in fields ranging from clinical to environmental to agricultural and to food industries. Given below are some of the fields in which biosensor technology is used:

  1. General healthcare monitoring,
  2. Screening of diseases,
  3. Clinical analysis and diagnosis of diseases,
  4. Veterinary and agricultural applications,
  5. Industrial-processing and monitoring, and
  6. Environmental pollution control.

 Biosensors can be used for quantitative determination of numerous biologically important substances in body fluids, e.g., glucose, cholesterol, urea. Glucose biosensor is widely used for regular monitoring of blood glucose in diabetic patients.

Also biosensors are used for blood gas monitoring for pH, pCO₂, and pO₂ during critical care and surgical monitoring of patients. Mutagenicity of a few chemicals can be determined by using biosensors. Presence of toxic compounds produced in the body can also be detected.

Production and Purification of Monoclonal antibodies by Hybridoma Technology

 G. Kohler and C. Milstein in 1975 first discovered the hybridoma technology. It is used for producing hybrid cells by fusing B-lymphocyte with tumour or myeloma cells. The hybrid cells produced using hybridoma technology, are either cultured in laboratory or sub-cultured using mouse peritoneal cavity. Thus, due to the presence of B-lymphocyte genetic material the hybrid cells can produce antibodies. The tumour cells used to produce hybrid cells make them undergo indefinite division in the culture.

The B-lymphocytes involved are pre-programmed to respond to a single type of antigen or antigenic determinant, thus they produce a single type of antibody that shows specificity for a specific antigen. The reaction of an antigen with B-lymphocyte receptors triggers the rapid division of lymphocytes. As a result, a clone of B cells is produced that generates antibodies against that specific antigen.

This entire process is called clonal selection in which B-lymphocytes produce a single type of antibodies specific to a single type of antigen or antigenic determinant. However, a fully differentiated antibody producing B-lymphocytes (known as plasma cells) does not undergo division when cultured in a laboratory.


The myeloma cells used in hybridoma technology should not synthesise their own antibodies. The hybridoma cells are selected based on inhibiting the nucleotide (subsequently, the DNA) synthesising machinery. The mammalian cells can synthesise nucleotides either by De novo synthesis or salvage pathway.

Pathways for the Nucleotide Synthesis (HGPRT-Hypoxanthine Guanine Phosphoribosyl Transferase; TK-Thymidine Kinase)

In the De novo synthesis of nucleotides, tetrahydrofolate formed from dihydrofolate is required. Aminopterin (an inhibitor) isolated formed from formation of tetrahydrofolate (and therefore nucleotides)

In the salvage pathway, the purines and pyrimidines are converted into the corresponding nucleotides. The key enzyme involved in the salvage pathway of purines is the Hypoxanthine Guanine Phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) which converts hypoxanthine and guanine to inosine monophosphate and guanosine monophosphate, respectively. Thymidine Kinase (TK) is involved in the salvage pathway of pyrimidines and converts thymidine to Thymidine Monophosphate (TMP). If any of these enzymes (HGPRT or TK) undergo mutation, the salvage pathway gets blocked.

When the mutated cells (i.e., the cells deficient in HGPRT) are grown in a medium containing Hypoxanthine Aminopterin and Thymidine (HAT medium). they fail to survive as the de novo synthesis of purine nucleotides is inhibited. Thus, the cells deficient in HGPRT and grown in HAT medium die.

The hybridoma cells possess the ability of myeloma cells to grow in vitro with a functional HGPRT gene obtained from the lymphocytes fused with myeloma cells. Thus, only the hybridoma cells can proliferate in the HAT medium, and this procedure is used for their selection.

Production of MAbs

The establishment of hybridomas and production of MAbs involves the following steps:
1) Immunisation,
2) Cell fusion,
3) Selection of hybridomas,
4) Screening the products,
5) Cloning and propagation, and
6) Characterisation and storage.

1] Immunisation

The first step in hybridoma technology is to immunise a mouse with a suitable antigen. The antigen and an adjuvant (like Freund's complete or incomplete adjuvant) are injected via subcutaneous route (adjuvants are non-specific potentiators of specific immune responses). The injections are repeated multiple times at many sites.

This increases the stimulation of B-lymphocytes which are responding to the antigen. Three days before the animal is slayed, a final dose of antigen is given via intravenous route. This approach gives rise to large number of immune-stimulated cells for synthesis of antibodies. The concentration of desired antibodies is assayed in the animal serum at frequent intervals during immunisation.

The animal is sacrificed when the concentration of antibodies in serum becomes optimal. The spleen is removed aseptically and disrupted mechanically or enzymatically to release the cells. The spleen lymphocytes are separated from the remaining cells by density gradient centrifugation.

Protocol for the Derivation of Monoclonal Antibodies from Hybrid Myelomas

2] Cell Fusion

The lymphocytes are thoroughly washed and mixed with HGPRT defective imyeloma cells. The mixture of cells is treated with Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) but for a few minutes due to its toxicity. The cells are then washed to remove PEG and kept in a fresh medium. These cells contain a mixture of hybridomas (fused cells), free myeloma cells, and free lymphocytes.

3] Selection of Hybridomas

On culturing the cells in HAT medium, the hybridoma cells grow and the remaining cells disappear slowly within 7-10 days. Selecting a single antibody producing hybrid cells is very essential, and is possible if the hybridomas are isolated and grown individually. The suspension of hybridoma cells is diluted to such intensity that the individual aliquots contain one cell each. These cells are grown in a regular culture medium to produce the desired antibody.

4] Screening the Products

The hybridomas should be screened for the secretion of the antibody of desired specificity, and the culture medium from each hybridoma culture should be tested occasionally (using ELISA and RIA techniques) for the desired antibody specificity. In both the techniques, i.e., ELISA and RIA, the antibody binds to the specific antigen (coated to plastic plates) and the unbound antibody and other components of the medium are washed off. Thus, the hybridoma cells producing the desired antibody are identified by screening. The antibody secreted by the hybrid cells is the monoclonal antibody.

5] Cloning and Propagation

The single hybrid cells producing the desired antibody are isolated and cloned by using the following two techniques:

  1. Limiting Dilution Method: In this method, the suspension of hybridoma cells is serially diluted and aliquots of each dilution are transferred into microculture wells. The dilutions are made such that each aliquot in a well contains a single hybrid cell, thus ensuring that the antibody produced is monoclonal.
  2. Soft Agar Method: In this method, the hybridoma cells are cultured in soft agar. Many cells can be grown simultaneously in a semisolid medium to form monoclonal colonies.

Practically, both these methods are used in combination to produce maximal MAbs.

6] Characterisation and Storage

The obtained monoclonal antibodies are subjected to biochemical and biophysical characterisation for the desired specificity. The MAbs should also be elucidated for the immunoglobulin class or sub-class, its specific epitope, and its number of binding sites.

The stability of the cell lines and the MAbs is also important. Both are characterised to check their ability to withstand freezing and thawing by freezing the desired cell lines in liquid nitrogen at several stages of cloning and culture.

Large Scale Production of MAbs

Production of MAbs in culture bottles is low (5-10µg/ml), thus to increase the yield the hybrid cells are grown as ascites in the peritoneal cavity of mice. The ascitic fluid contains 5-20mg of MAb/ml, which is much superior to the in vitro cultivation techniques. Collection of MAbs from ascitic fluid has a heavy risk of contamination by pathogenic organisms of the animal. Also many animals have to be sacrificed to produce MAbs. Therefore, workers prefer in vitro techniques over using animals.

Encapsulated Hybridoma Cells for Commercial Production of MAbs

To increase the hybridoma cell density in suspension culture, the hybridomas are encapsulated in alginate gels using a coating solution containing poly-lysine. These gels allow the nutrients to enter in and antibodies to come out of the hybridomas. In this way, the yield of MAb production can be increased (10-100µg/ml).

Purification of MAbs

   The desired antibodies should be extracted from a media sample of cultured hybridomas or a sample of ascites fluid. The contaminants in the cell culture sample consists of growth factors, hormones, and transferrins. The in vivo sample however, contains host antibodies, proteases, nucleases, nucleic acids, and viruses. Other secretions by the hybridomas (like cytokines) may be present in both the cases. Endotoxins may also be present in case of bacterial contamination as they are secreted by the bacteria.

   For purification, the sample is conditioned by removing cells, cell debris, lipids, and clotted materials through centrifugation and then filtration through a 0.45µm filter. Membrane fouling can be caused by the large particles in the further steps of purification. Moreover, the product concentration in the sample might not be sufficient, particularly in cases where the desired antibody is produced by a low-secreting cell line. Therefore, the sample is subjected to ultrafiltration or dialysis for condensation.

   The charged impurities are mostly anions like nucleic acids and endotoxins, and are separated by ion exchange chromatography. At sufficiently low pH, cation exchange chromatography is conducted so that the desired antibody binds to the column and the anions flow through. While at sufficiently high pH, anion exchange chromatography is conducted so that the desired antibody flows through column and the anions bind to it.

Based on their Isoelectric point (pl), many proteins and anions can be separated For example, pI of albumin (4.8) is lower than the pl. of most monoclonal bodies (6.1). So, the average charge of albumin molecules at a certain pH a e negative. Size exclusion chromatography is used for removing transferrin.

Affinity purification is conducted to obtain maximum purity in a single step as the antigen used delivers antibody specificity. In this technique, the antibody generating antigen is covalently bonded to agarose support. If the antigen in a peptide, it is synthesised with a terminal cysteine that allows selective attachment a carrier protein (e.g., Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin, KLH) during development and to promote purification. The media, containing antibody is incubated with the immobilised antigen in batch. It can also be incubated as the antibody is passed through a column, at which it binds selectively and the impurities are rinsed. The purified antibody is recovered from the support by an elution using a low pH buffer or a gentle high salt elution buffer.

Sodium or ammonium sulphate is used to precipitate out the antibodies for their further selection. Antibodies precipitate at low salt concentrations, while other proteins precipitate at higher concentrations. To obtain best separation, salt should be added in sufficient amount, and the excess salt can be removed by desalting method like dialysis.

Chromatogram is used for the analysis of final purity. Presence of any impurities can be detected by the formation of peaks and the amount of impurity is indicated by the volume under the peaks. Gel electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis can also be performed for the analysis of final purity. Presence of any impurities can be detected by the formation of bands of varying intensity.

Type 2 Hypersensitivity Reaction and Examples

 An elevated activity of normal immune system that damages the body tissues is known as hypersensitivity. Hypersensitivity, also termed as hypersensitivity reaction refers to inappropriate immune responses (like damaging. discomforting, and sometimes fatal). A pre-sensitised (immune) state of the host initiates hypersensitivity reactions.

Туре 2 Hypersensitivity

The type II hypersensitivity reactions cause tissue or cell damage as a direct result of the actions of antibody and complement.

Mode of Action

The reaction during blood transfusion is an example of type II hypersensitivity reactions. In blood transfusion, reaction occurs between the host antibodies and foreign antigens present on the incompatible transfused blood cells. This reaction mediates cell destruction.

Events Following Initial and Subsequent Exposures to an Allergen Resulting in Sensitisation and Manifestation of Allergic Responses

Antibody-mediated cell destruction occurs through activation of complement system. This increases membrane porosity in foreign cell by forming Membrane Attack Complex (MAC). Cell destruction can also be mediated through Antibody Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC).

Haemolysis of the donor's erythrocytes occurs in the recipient's blood vessels as a result of faulty cross-matching in which the alloantigen of the donor's erythrocytes react with the serum antibodies of the recipient along with the activated complement.

Biological Effects

  1. When the maternal IgG antibodies specific for antigens of foetal blood-group cross the placenta and destroy the erythrocytes of foetus, haemolytic disease occurs in new-born.
  2. A haemolytic medical condition affecting the new-borns is erythroblastosis foetalis in which the Rh foetus expresses an Rh+ antigen on its blood cells that the Rh- mother does not express.
  3. Drug-induced haemolytic anaemia occurs when some antibiotics (e.g., penicillin, cephalosporin and streptomycin) get non-specifically absorbed to proteins on erythrocyte membranes and form a complex (like hapten-carrier complex) that induces anaemia.

Examples of Type 2 Hypersensitivity 

  • Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia
  • Goodpasture syndrome, 
  • Erythroblastosis foetalis pemphigus, 
  • Pernicious anaemia (if autoimmune), 
  • Immune thrombocytopenia,
  • Transfusion reactions, 
  • Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 
  • Graves' disease, 
  • Myasthenia gravis, 
  • Rheumatic fever, and haemolytic disease of the new-born. 
  • Hyper acute graph rejection.

Dot Blot Technique Principle, Steps & Applications

 In the realm of molecular biology, where precision and efficiency are paramount, the dot blot technique stands out as a simple yet powerful method for detecting and analyzing biomolecules. Originally developed in the 1970s by George Stark and colleagues, dot blotting has since become a cornerstone in various research fields, including genetics, immunology, and diagnostics.

Principle of Dot Blotting :

 At its core, dot blotting involves the immobilization of target molecules, such as DNA, RNA, or proteins, onto a solid support membrane. This membrane, typically made of nitrocellulose or nylon, acts as a platform for subsequent detection and analysis steps.

The procedure begins with the application of a small volume (usually a few microliters) of the sample directly onto the membrane in the form of discrete dots. The samples can be pure substances, crude extracts, or complex mixtures, depending on the experimental objectives.

Steps Involved in Dot Blotting:

1.Sample Application: The sample is carefully spotted onto the membrane, usually using a pipette or a specialized dot blot apparatus. The arrangement of the dots can be controlled to facilitate comparison and quantification.

2.Blocking: To minimize nonspecific interactions and reduce background noise, the membrane is incubated with a blocking agent, such as bovine serum albumin (BSA) or non-fat dry milk. This step saturates any unbound binding sites on the membrane surface.

3.Primary Antibody Incubation: Next, the membrane is exposed to a specific primary antibody that recognizes the target molecule of interest. This antibody binds selectively to its target, forming an antigen-antibody complex.

4.Washing: Excess primary antibody is removed through several washes with a suitable buffer. This step helps to remove any unbound antibodies and further reduces background signals.

5.Detection: The presence of the target molecule is visualized by adding a detection reagent that interacts with the primary antibody. This can involve secondary antibodies conjugated to enzymes, fluorophores, or other reporter molecules. The detection reagent generates a signal that can be detected and quantified.

6.Analysis: The dot blot results are analyzed either qualitatively or quantitatively, depending on the research goals. Quantification can be achieved through densitometry or by comparing signal intensities relative to standards of known concentration.

Advantages of Dot Blotting:

- Speed and Simplicity: Dot blotting offers a rapid and straightforward alternative to traditional methods such as Western blotting and Southern blotting. The entire procedure can be completed in a matter of hours, making it ideal for high-throughput applications.

- Versatility: Dot blotting can be adapted to detect a wide range of biomolecules, including DNA, RNA, proteins, antibodies, and antigens. This versatility makes it a valuable tool in various research areas, from gene expression analysis to disease diagnostics.

- Sensitivity: With proper optimization, dot blotting can achieve high levels of sensitivity, allowing for the detection of low-abundance molecules in complex samples.

- Cost-Effectiveness: Dot blotting requires minimal specialized equipment and reagents, making it a cost-effective option for many laboratories.

Applications of Dot Blotting:

- Gene Expression Analysis: Dot blotting can be used to study gene expression patterns by detecting mRNA transcripts or specific DNA sequences.

- Protein Detection: Dot blotting is commonly employed to screen for the presence of specific proteins in biological samples, such as cell lysates or tissue extracts.

- Antibody Screening: Dot blotting can rapidly screen for the presence of antibodies in patient sera, facilitating the diagnosis of infectious diseases or autoimmune disorders.

- Quality Control: Dot blotting is often used in quality control processes to assess the purity and identity of biomolecules, such as recombinant proteins or synthetic oligonucleotides.

Application of Biotechnology in various fields


 Biotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that combines principles of biology, chemistry, physics, engineering, and computer science to develop technologies and products that utilize biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, for various applications. These applications can range from healthcare and agriculture to industrial processes and environmental remediation. In essence, biotechnology harnesses the inherent capabilities of living organisms or their components to solve problems, create new products, or improve existing processes. Examples include genetic engineering, biopharmaceuticals, agricultural biotechnology, biofuels, and environmental bioremediation.

Application of Biotechnology in various fields 

Biotechnology, a dynamic field at the intersection of biology and technology, has revolutionized industries ranging from healthcare to agriculture. With its vast array of applications, biotechnology continues to push the boundaries of what is possible in science and innovation.

Healthcare Advancements

 One of the most impactful applications of biotechnology is in healthcare. From personalized medicine to advanced diagnostics, biotechnology plays a pivotal role in improving human health. Genetic engineering techniques, such as CRISPR-Cas9, have opened doors to precise gene editing, offering hope for treating genetic disorders and diseases. Additionally, biopharmaceuticals derived from biotechnology, such as insulin and monoclonal antibodies, have transformed the treatment of various illnesses, including cancer and autoimmune diseases.

Agricultural Innovations

 Biotechnology has also revolutionized agriculture, offering solutions to global challenges such as food security and environmental sustainability. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been developed to enhance crop yield, improve resistance to pests and diseases, and reduce the need for chemical pesticides and fertilizers. Furthermore, biotechnology enables the development of drought-resistant and nutrient-enriched crops, addressing the challenges posed by climate change and malnutrition.

Environmental Remediation

 Biotechnology presents promising solutions for environmental remediation and conservation. Bioremediation techniques utilize microorganisms to degrade pollutants in soil, water, and air, offering eco-friendly alternatives to traditional cleanup methods. Moreover, biotechnology facilitates the development of biofuels, such as biodiesel and bioethanol, derived from renewable sources like algae and agricultural waste, reducing reliance on fossil fuels and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions.

Industrial Applications

 In the industrial sector, biotechnology drives innovation in various fields, including bio-based materials, bioinformatics, and bioprocessing. Bio-based materials, such as bioplastics and biofibers, offer sustainable alternatives to conventional petroleum-based products, reducing environmental impact and promoting circular economy principles. Additionally, bioprocessing techniques enable the production of bio-based chemicals, enzymes, and pharmaceuticals through microbial fermentation and enzymatic catalysis, fostering a greener and more efficient manufacturing industry.

Challenges and Ethical Considerations

 Despite its tremendous potential, biotechnology also raises ethical and societal concerns, particularly regarding genetic engineering, biosecurity, and bioprospecting. The manipulation of genetic material, while offering opportunities for therapeutic interventions and agricultural improvements, raises questions about safety, equity, and unintended consequences. Furthermore, the commodification of biological resources and the potential for biopiracy highlight the importance of ethical frameworks and regulatory oversight to ensure responsible innovation and equitable access to biotechnological advancements.


Biotechnology continues to shape the world we live in, offering transformative solutions to global challenges while posing complex ethical dilemmas. As we navigate the evolving landscape of biotechnological innovation, it is crucial to approach its applications with a balanced perspective, weighing the potential benefits against ethical considerations and societal implications. By harnessing the power of biotechnology responsibly, we can unlock its boundless potential to improve lives, safeguard the environment, and drive sustainable development for future generations.